Обмен учебными материалами


f) adverbial modifier of purpose

to spend, to see, to keep, to fetch, to have

1. Jennie had driven off next day ... the twins from a swimming-pool near by. 2. "Hallo, Marjie,”I said. "Have you come ... me com­pany?" 3. I arrived on a Saturday afternoon ... a week there. 4. He invited them to the flat one evening ... coffee. 5. Sometimes people came from London especially ... the Black Madonna.

Exercise 8.

Use the particle to to avoid repetition of the infinitive used in the first part of the sentence.

Model: "Don't talk," he told her. "Unless you want to talk." "Don't talk," he told her. "Unless you want to."

1. She liked all this kind of thing. Some people pretended not to like. 2. "Youlive round there, do you?" — "I used to live round there, said Rose. 3. "May I sit down for a minute?" — "If you want to sit down. 4. "May I come in?" he asked, — "Yes, if you want to come in." 5. After all there's no reason why I shouldn't go if I want to go, 6 "I'm sorry: was I making a speed?" — "You were beginning to make a speed." 7. "Why did she come back?" — "I suppose she wanted to come back,' said Michael and giggled. 8. "Can I really stay?" — "If you really want to stay," I said kindly. 9. "They oughtn't to let her run around the country this way." — "Who oughtn't to let her run round the country this way?" 10. It was the last thing she wanted to do, but she saw that she would have to do.

Exercise 9.

Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one using an infin­itive or an infinitive phrase in the function of an adverbial modifier of purpose instead of the second sentence.

3. When he left Mrs Otter Philip went. She wanted to buy drawing materials. 2. At last Lawson, exhausted, got up. He decided to go home. 3. It occurred to him that his information might be used. He want­ed to help the girl. 4. So I went up to the counter and collected Octa-via's penicillin, then went back. I decided to sit and wait with George.

5. I read about your stow away and came. I wanted to see if I could help.

6. He made up his mind. He decided to be more reasonable. 7. He left
the room. He wanted to avoid trouble. 8. He looked at me. He wanted
to see what I meant. 9. Then she looked up and down at the West­
minster Bridge Road. She wanted to see if he was in view. 10. His
niece put her face up. She wanted to be kissed.

Exercise 10.

Combine each of the following pairs of sentences into one sentence using the infinitive in the function of an adverbial modifier of result. Use the adverbs too or enough where necessary.

Model: He is old. He can be your father.

He is old enough to be your father.

1. He feltexcited. He couldn't sleep. 2. I'm weak. I can't help you. 3. 1 was tired. 1 couldn't go up to the dining-room. 4. The room was stuffy with the window closed, but I was tired. I couldn't get up and open

it. 5. He was angry. He couldn’t care what he did.

6. His influence with Dunsford was strong. He could get him to take tea elsewhere.

7. Her neck was still strong. She could held her head high. 8. He was good. He said that he knew no one who combined those qualities to so high a degree as I do. 9. They sucked their teeth automatically at us and then realized that we were tired. We couldn't be annoyed by it. 10- Her husband had been a soldier, and from a grateful country she received a pension. It was large to keep her.

Exercise 11.

Replace the subordinate attributive clause by an infinitive in the function of an attribute.

Model: I had avoided the house all day and had brought food that we could eat by the lake.

I had avoided the house all day and had brought food to eat by the lake.

1. Thank you very much, but I've got something better I can do with my time. 2. There was nothing else we could do. 3. He might have something he wanted to tell her. 4. I just want to look round and see if there's anything that can be done. 5. Scarlett, I have something so important I want to tell you that I hardly know how to say it. 6. At the end of the year there was a great deal we had to do. 7. There was nothing more that could be done here. 8. There are various things we must discuss. 9. Everything was all right, there wasn't a thing one could find fault with. 10. I've got a suggestion I can make to you.

Exercise 12.

Paraphrase the following sentences according to the model. Translate them into Russian.

Model: I turned round indignantly to find myself face to face with Miss Peabody.

I turned round indignantly and found myself face to face with Miss Peabody.

1. He arrived at three o'clock to hear that Fleur had gone out with the car at ten. 2. Startled, he looked up to find her smiling. 3. The cigarette glowed and faded, only to glow again. 4. The door opened to reveal Albert Wells. He was fully dressed. 5. He rose, to find Janet and the captain standing beside him. 6. She was startled to hear aft unknown voice. 7. He arrived at eleven o'clock to see that all was ready. 8, We were out for a few moments only, to take a walk around the block, and we returned to supper. 9. He smiled to think how the silvery noise which Mr Casey used to make had deceived him. 10. Late on the morning of Christmas Eve I returned from the Falls to find a crowd of natives quar­relling outside the garage.

Exercise 13. Replace the infinitive used in the function of an attribute by an at-­ tributive clause.

Model: Probably there's nothing to do.

Probably there's nothing that we can do.

1. I had apparently nothing to fear. 2. "Did they give you anything

to drink?" I said. 3. Her parents were away from home, so there would be nobody to look after her. 4. I should have thought it would be more to the point to get up and enjoy a splendid day. 5. It was not the thing to say. 6. Well, there is nothing to see inside. 7. There was nothing else to do. 8. She found no one to admire.

Exercise 14.

Replace the infinitive used in the function of an adverbial, modifier by a simple sentence.

1. I stopped every few minutes to recover from my coughing. 2. He joined Jennie and the children on the doorstep to wave good-bye. 3.They went to sleep and were quite good afterwards, 4. When Jennie returned, Simon leapt off to wash. 5. Mrs Jan Cloote put down her cup and looked round the room to see if everyone had unfortunately heard me. 6. After that we went to a house to meet a lot of Curly's friends. 7.He left there and went back to the house to get his camera. 8. We took turns to prepare meals. 9. Tom Wells came to meet us.

Exercise 15.

Translate into English, Use the infinitive in the function of:



1. Идти в кино было слишком поздно. 2. Тщетно было пытаться сделать это за один день. 3, Моей обязанностью было готовить чай по утрам и вечерам. 4. Из моей комнаты было невозможно не слышать все то, что происходило на улице. 5. Было очень приятно надеть еще раз серую рубашку.



1. Не забудьте принять таблетки от головной боли. 2. Они на­деялись найти Тома в бассейне, а его там не оказалось. 3. Он при­гласил своих друзей прийти посмотреть его новую квартиру. 4. Он дал Филиппу свой адрес, и Филипп обещал пообедать с ним в следую­щее воскресенье в час. 5. Я решил поехать в Москву вместе с родите­лями.



1. Я тебе должен что-то показать. 2. Он работал хорошо и легко. У него было много дел. 3. Ничего не оставалось делать, как только ждать прихода родителей. 4. У него были дети, о которых он должен был заботиться. 5. Кто-то должен первым начать говорить. 6. Они первыми приехали, следовательно, первыми и уедут. 7. У него было много новостей, которые он должен был немедленно сообщить Раль­фу. 8. У него был небольшой багаж, который следовало упаковать. 9. Вы выглядите очень вольным. Есть кто-нибудь, кто бы мог за вами ухаживать здесь? 10. Ей нечего было сказать.


adverbial modifier of result

1. Она была слишком удивлена, чтобы говорить об этом. 2. Он дос­таточно умен, чтобы понять вашу шутку. 3. Ему достаточно много лет, чтобы быть моим дедушкой. 4. Я слишком слаба, чтобы идти туда одной. 5. Он достаточно здоров, чтобы кататься на лыжах. 6. Он дос­таточно опытен, чтобы выполнить эту работу в срок.


adverbial modifier of purpose

1. Я пришел, чтобы убедиться, смогу ли я помочь вам.

2. Он встал, чтобы уйти. 3. Она отошла назад, чтобы посмотреть

на свою работу. 4. Пойдите и найдите кого-нибудь еще, кто мог бы помочь вам. 5. Понадобилось пятнадцать минут, чтобы исследовать второй тоннель. 6. «Что вы здесь делаете?» — «Я пришла искать вас». 7. Он подошел к детям, чтобы попрощаться. 8. Он улыбнулся ей и пошел помогать Тому упаковывать вещи. 9. Мы ушли в другую комнату, чтобы посмотреть их библиотеку.

Exercise 16.

Translate into English.

1. Вам лучше подождать здесь. 2. Я думала, что вы, может быть, не хотите, чтобы с вами говорили. 3. Последним, кто приехал, был мой отец. 4. О таких вещах нельзя говорить. 5. У нее была привычка приходить ко мне каждое утро и спрашивать, что я хочу на завтрак. 6. Почему за ним нельзя послать? 7. Это, кажется, просто сделать. 8. С ним нельзя было шутить. 9. Очень холодно. Я лучше закрою окно. 10. Том не спешил с ответом. 11. Вам лучше не ходить туда одной. 12. Филипп разрешил дяде поцеловать его в лоб. 13. Она предполагала, что ее будут ругать, когда она вошла, так как было слишком поздно. 14. Подождите, пожалуйста, я должна вам что-то рассказать. 15. Рассказ был слишком хорош, чтобы его так быстро забыть. 16. Она вошла, и он встал, чтобы встретить ее. 17. Я хочу, чтобы меня оставили одного. 18. Он снял очки, чтобы их протереть. 19. Он был недостаточно взрослым, чтобы понять этот рассказ. 20. У него было желание поехать на юг к друзьям. 21. Они уехали послед­ними. 22. Джек посмотрел на Тома, чтобы понять, как он воспринял эти новости. 23. За ним послали, но он приехал слишком поздно, чтобы сделать что-либо полезное. 24. Они продолжали сидеть и раз­говаривать почти до полуночи. Том, который жил дальше всех, ушел первым. 25. Она тихо вошла, чтобы сказать, что Джейн уже приехала. 26. Он получил письмо от Джеймса, в котором сообщалось, что его сестра была недостаточно здорова, чтобы самой писать ответ. 27. На следующий день она встала рано, чтобы приготовить комнату к приез­ду сына. 28. Он подошел достаточно близко, чтобы увидеть ее лицо. 29. Она вошла, чтобы накрыть на стол. 30. Спустя десять дней она была достаточно здорова, чтобы выписаться из больницы.

Exercise 17.

Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. She is not to be allowed on any flight, no matter what she says. 2. "Am I to come home?" he asked. 3. He made out a list of books which Philip was to read. 4. Sandy was to leave Edinburgh at the end of the year. 5. I was to meet him that night, a Saturday. 6. The telephone call was to be from Jonathan on Monday. 7. I don't have to be told who she was. 8. But something had to be done. 9. I did not have much to put in my bag. 10. "I'm afraid I shall have to go in a minute," she said. "I'm late already." 11. There are things that have to be done. 12. "Well, I'll have to go when your parents come back," said Lydia.

Exercise 18.

Translate the sentences into

1. You don't know how charming he was in those days, so good to look at, so gay and light-hearted. 2. It is true that, with Robinson's

system, the place was easy to run. 3. His head was hot to touch. 4. You're easy to please. 5. Yet under those circumstances his silence seemed dif­ficult to explain.

Exercise 19.

Translate into English.

1. Ему трудно угодить. 2. В этом доме было удобно жить. 3. На него было не очень приятно смотреть. 4. С ней было трудно иметь дело. 5. Это стихотворение легко выучить наизусть. 6. За этим столом удобно работать.

Exercise 20.

Complete the sentences choosing a suitable infinitive phrase from the fol­lowing list.

whento come, how to phrase, how to keep, how to handle, what to do, which to choose, where to put,whether to stay here or go back, where to go, what to say

1. He asked his mother ... back. 2. We know ... snow and ice; we live with it. 3. There were a lot of books on the shelves. We did not know ... . 4. We were not sure ... . 5. Show me please ... . 6. I did not know ... the baby warm. 7. She did not ... . Her head swam and she was afraid she was going to faint. 8. I was helping her to put away the clean linen. She was telling me ... it. 9. He did not know ... his faith in her. 30. I'm so bewildered, I don't know ... .

Exercise 21.

Translate into English.

1. В машине они обсудили, что делать дальше. 2. Мы сомневались, послать ли ему письмо или телеграмму. 3. Она сказала шоферу, куда ехать. 4. Я не знаю, когда мне следует возвращаться. 5. Я не знала, в какую сторону смотреть. 6. Он совсем не знал, как начать письмо. 7. Я не знаю, что и подумать о нем. 8. Он не знал, что сказать. 9. Он не знал, как начать разговор.

Exercise 22.

Make up sentences using the following infinitive phrases:

what to do, what to say, how to say, how to take, how to dress, how to keep, how to speak, how to stand, how to use, how to behave, which to take, where to go, when to come, what to say.

Syntactical Complexes with the Infinitive

Exercise 23.

Note the complex object with the infinitive and the verbs it is used after. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. There's some information I want you to obtain. 2. He liked to see them work. 3. Let's get to the point. 4. Oh, Jack, you made me start. 5. I don't want them to say anything to me. 6. James watched her go.

7. She gave a meaningful sigh which made him drive all the faster.

8. I was dusting the saloon, and I saw him pass, and his face was white.

9. Lawson nodded quickly and walked away. Philip felt a shiver pass
his heart. 10. He watched them go. 11. He let them go. 12. He saw the
pain come into Lawson's eyes.

Exercise 24.

Paraphrase the following using complex objects with the infinitive,

Model: She watched how he went. She watched him go.

1. He heard how one of the other girls in the shop addressed Jane. 2. He felt that the eyes of his fellow-students rested on him. 3. She saw that the door of the sitting-room opened and her mother entered. 4. What I want is that your uncle shouldn't be left alone. 5. She smiled when she heard how he locked the door loudly. 6. What she wanted was that he would come and see her. 7. Jack watched how Eliza leave, then he walked slowly down the hall to his father's room. 8. I've never heard him how he spoke of his life in Canada.

Exercise 25.

Make up sentences with complex objects with the infinitive. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. speak, I, have heard, of his boyhood, never, him. 2. swing, at

once, open, the door, I, saw. 3. about something, I, quite different,

me, you, want, to tell. 4. you, don't, worry, that, let. 5. what, this,

her, say, made? 6. without, her, let, my sister, go, a word. 7. young,
her long hair, made, look, her.

Exercise 26.

Translate into English.

1. Разрешите, пожалуйста, взять эту книгу сейчас. 2. Он не ожидал, что я так быстро уйду. 3. Она слышала, как уехала его ма­шина. 4. Она наблюдала, как он вышел из дома. 5. Его письма обыч­но заставляли ее смеяться. 6. Давайте пойдем домой. 7. Она бы хо­тела, чтобы я навестила их в воскресенье. 8. Она слышала, как подъ­ехала машина. 9. Она пыталась заставить его носить перчатки. 10. Она видела, как Том вышел из ворот вместе со своей сестрой. 11. Вам нужно позаботиться о муже и не разрешать ему слишком много ра­ботать. 12. Трудно заставить его понять это. 13. Я в жизни не слы­шал, чтобы он так много говорил. 14. Он наблюдал, как жена нали­ла ему кофе и поставила чашку на стол. 15. Я хочу, чтобы вы расска­зали мне что-нибудь о своих родителях. 16. Я видела, что Женни упаковала ящик. 17. Эрик отошел в сторону и наблюдал, как мы разжигали костер. 18. Вы хотите, чтобы я пошла туда сейчас? 19. Я видела, что он повернулся к Джейн и что-то ей сказал. 20. Спустя некоторое время он слышал, как входная дверь открылась и закры­лась. 21. Вы хотите, чтобы я сказала ему об этом сегодня? 22. Он никогда не слышал, чтобы она упоминала его имя.

Exercise 27. Note the complex subject with the infinitive and the verb it is used after. Translate the sentences into Russian.

1. He was seen to cross the street and turn round the corner. 2. She was heard to breathe heavily. 3. He was made to eat a Chester cake and was spoken to in a slightly more Edinburgh way than usual. 4. He is said to be one of the best students at our faculty. 5. She was reported to have been very faithful to her friends. She knew everybody she wished to know and everybody was pleased to know her. 6. When he recovered he was allowed to ski every Sunday. 7. Her retirement was rather a tragedy, she was forced to retire before time. 8. "Miss Brodie is ill," said Miss Ellen. — "Yes," said Miss Guant, "she is expected to be ab­sent for another week." 9. He always appeared to be so helpful on the

committees, so considerate. 10. His pockets turned out to contain nothing except a packet of Turkish cigarettes, which he usually smoked. 11. He happened to be her brother-in-law. 12. He proved to be their devoted friend. 13. He seemed to know her thoughts. 14. Father and Dr Pearson are sure to get into one of their chess games, and when they do that anyone else might just as well not be there. 15. At any moment the boys were likely to be away.

Exercise 28.

Paraphrase the following sentences using the complex subject with the infinitive.

a) 1. He marched out into the hall. She heard him lift the receiver
and give the number. 2. He did not expect her to write often, for he
knew that letter-writing came difficult to her. 3. He saw those three
return together from the other room and pass back along the far side
of the screen. 4. "Oh, I didn't hear you come in," — "I "came to see if
I could be of any help to you," said Race. 5. A voice on the stairs behind
made us all start. 6. He made the boy take off his boot and stocking.

b) 1. It seemed that her dinner party went on too long to her, as
it did to you. 2. It seemed that she sensed the purpose of his question.
3. It seemed that he did not notice that I was in outdoor clothes. 4. "It
seems that you know a lot of Robinson," Tom Wells observed. 5. It
was so wonderful to see old George. It seems he needs a friend.

c) 1. It appeared that George was talking to Mr Smiss persuasively.

2. "I don't think you should blame yourself." It appeared that the man
had not heard. He went on as if in a daze. 3. When she passed by it
appeared that they looked at her attentively. 4. It appeared that they
were coming down when I left the room. 5. It appeared that he did not
see at all why he should explain his disappearance.

d) 1. It was likely that he had hidden my journal under his mat­
tress. 2. It was unlikely that she would come across him by accident.

3. It is quite likely that a motor containing two boys has been noticed.

4. It is unlikely that he will come and see us soon. 5. I think, it is
likely Peter will make that mistake.

e) 1. It is believed that John has arrived in London. 2. It is known
that Jack is good at painting. 3. It is reported that the space-ship has
landed successfully. 4. It is believed he is clever. 5. They say that he is
the best teacher at our school.

f) 1. It happened that his father came. It was raining and he had not
been able to play golf, and he and Walter Fane had a long chat. 2. It
happened that everybody had taken the problem seriously. 3. It happened
that I saw them at the theatre. 4. It happened that I mentioned your
brother's name. 5. It happened that I knew Eliza's brother well.

Exercise 29.

Translate into English.

1. Говорят, что он лучший доктор в нашем городе. 2. Видели, как он перевернул страницу и начал читать. 3. Слышали, что он вскоре поднялся наверх. 4. Вам разрешат идти вместе со мной? 5. Джейн, кажется, раньше, чем вы, изъявила желание помочь им. 6. Многие из пассажиров, по-видимому, были туристами. 7. Они сказали, что

подобное вряд ли случается дважды. 8. По-видимому, он собирается стать врачом. 9. Детям не разрешалось трогать кроликов. 10. Оказа­лось, что я его хорошо знаю. 11, С того времени вы, кажется, очень сильно изменились. 12. Слышали, как хлопнула входная дверь,

13. Предполагалось, что мы встретимся в шесть часов около школы,

14. Улицы города были пусты. По-видимому, все местное население
ушло в лес. 15. Казалось, что они уже совсем его забыли. 16. Вероят­-
но, она была единственным человеком, который останется здесь на­
всегда. 17. Видели, как сверкнули его глаза, но он ничего не сказал,
18. Он, по-видимому, шел за ней, но через некоторое время отстал и
пошел к бабушке. 19. Я, кажется, хорошо знаю вас. Я, должно быть,
встречал вас у своих родителей. 20. Очень вероятно, что они будут
благодарить меня за эту помощь. 21. Кажется, вы много знаете об
этом городе. 22. Слышали, как открылась дверь, и кто-то вошел в
комнату. 23. Случилось так, что меня не было дома, когда он звонил.

24. Когда он говорил, он, кажется, больше говорил себе, чем им,

25. Слышали, как он играл на рояле и что-то пел. 26. Случилось так,
что я сказал, что вы знаете его. 27. Он, кажется, также помогает и
другим студентам. 28. По-видимому, она согласилась поехать на
экскурсию в Ясную Поляну. 29. Я не знала, что существование под-­
земных каналов предполагалось держать в секрете. 30. Казалось, что
Александр хотел задать еще вопрос, но, по-видимому, изменил свое

Exercise 30.

State the syntactic functions of the for-to-infinitive phrase.

1. On the first occasion it was necessary for him to indicate his re­quirements to her. 2. The top of this was covered with a thin layer of soil and coarse grass and shaded with young trees. There was not enough soil for them to grow to any height. 3. He waited impatiently for Eliza to go on. 4. There is nothing for you to do but leave at once. 5. The best thing is for you to do it now. 6. She spread jam for him and cut up the bread and butter into convenient slices for the child to eat.

Exercise 31.

Paraphrase the following sentences so as to use for-to-infiijitive phrases.

1. Sandy stood at the kitchen door waiting till Miss Brodie came for a walk by the sea. 2. It is time that you should go, Tom. 3. There was nobody who she could speak to. 4. A peasant was walking wearily to­wards us, and we waited till he came up to us in order to ask the way again. 5. Janet sat and waited till they went away. 6. She then sat down in Mrs Anthony's chair and waited till the kettle boiled. 7. Was it pos- sible that she could forget him? 8. Then she made her way to the kitchen where the tray had been set by Mrs Anthony and waited till Mrs Petti-grew made the tea. 9. He waited till she spoke.

Exercise 32.

Complete the following sentences using for-to-infinitive phrases.

1. They waited at the door for (she) ... .2. It is necessary for (he) ... . 3. There was no reason for (she) ... . 4. It was obligatory for (they) ... . 5. There were no friends for (he)... . 6. There is nothing for

(you) ... . 7. She played the violin for (they) ... , 8. It seemed strange for(they) ... . 9. It is desirable for (Pete) ... . 10. It is advisable for (they) ... .

Exercise 33.

Translate the following sentences into English.

1. Она позвонила, чтобы они навестили ее в начале сентября. 2. Джейн была очень рада, что может поехать отдыхать со своей се­строй. 3. Она говорила достаточно громко, чтобы все могли ее хорошо слышать. 4. Она ждала, пока Анна вернется с прогулки. 5. Она ждала, пока муж заплатит за такси. 6. В восемь часов дети вошли, чтобы сказать спокойной ночи, и подошли к матери, чтобы она могла их поцеловать. 7. Моим друзьям было трудно успевать за мной. 8. Он позвонил, чтобы сестра пригласила нового пациента. 9. Мне трудно подниматься по лестнице.


Exercise 1.

Define noun and verb characteristics of the gerund.

1. It's natural living like this alone with Nature. 2. Keeping his serret won't do any harm. 3. All I want is getting to the truth. 4. He had great difficulty in undoing his collar. 5. He did not like the idea of her staying with her father's people in Capetown. 6. I don't feel comfortable at Miss Brown's leaving us so soon. 7. He was good at gather­ing mushrooms. 8. I kept walking quickly. 9. He was aware of Jack's watching him attentively. 10. Raymond did not like being called Ray. 11. It was some time beforeTremembered having met him on the Liston

plane. 12. She smiled without showing her teeth.

Exercise 2.

Use the indefinite gerund of the verb in brackets in the active or passive voice.

1. He looked forward to (to meet) his parents. 2. You can't be afraid of (to hurt) unless you've been hurt. 3. He took his time about (to answer). 4. Robinson coulcl not live in the caves. They aren't for (to live). They're for (to go) through. 5. But in fear of (to recognize) she lowered her gaze. 6. So I see. You're good at (to make) yourself at home. 7. Jack would have gone to his bedroom without (to see). 8. My sister would never leave without (to see) me. 9. Jennie sat them up to their dinner, and Jeff presently stopped (to cry). 10. She couldn't help (to like) the look in his brown eyes. 11. He had got out of the habit of (to ask) ques­tions by demonstrators. 12. I've always liked (to take) risks. 13. Iseem to remember (to tell) not to grumble by someone. 14. She had not even got round to (to ask) for anything yet, because she was too busy to tell him about her granddaughter. 15. At his departure Rose had continued to weep, largely through fury at (to leave) alone with Nurse Williams.

Exercise 3.

Use the required form of the gerund of the verb in brackets.

1. She didn't feel like (to go) unescorted into dinner, which would begin soon. 2. I inquired of Robinson that afternoon about my book. He neither admitted nor denied (to take) it. 3. Since Tom was his best

friend he helped him without (to ask). 4. His latest desire was to discover her age, which he cursed himself foYnot (to observe) when he had her passport in his hands. 5. He could not help (to know) that there were odious people who called him a snob. 6. Daisy and Gatsby danced. I remember (to be) surprised by his graceful, conservative fox-trot — I had never seen him dance before. 7. When they had finished (to write) this letter they read the whole correspondence from beginning to end. 8. He would never forgive her for (to play) this game, for over fifty years. 9. He poured milk into a jug from a carton in the refrigerator, then drank some milk himself before (to put) the carton back. 10. It's no good (to deny) that. 11. Try and help the nurses by (to keep) quiet and tidy. 12. From there he had a clear view of the entrance to the room, with the advantage that he could avoid (to observe) himself by (to run) quickly out of sight through the stairway door. 13. The tables were put on one side so that there might be room for (to dance). 14. I don't like (to spy) on. 15. Annette, who heard thousands of names mentioned every year, and had a deplorable memory, could recall (to hear) the name of Fox in connection with something or other, but could not remember exactly what. 16. The porter, also on (to enter), would have tapped out his own code. 17. He suddenly stopped (to read). There was no point in (to go) on. He looked up and found forty pairs of eyes fixed on him in­tently. 18. You must excuse me for (to think) you were a gipsy.

Exercise 4.

State the syntactic function of the gerund.

1.It's no use doing things by halves. 2. She kept eyeing Henry with interest. 3. He didn't feel like talking to anyone now. 4. I could not help thinking of the island in this anatomical way. 5. After pausing for breath she announced, "I have some excellent news." 6. She explained this to them by saying she was busy. 7. She asked her one or two questions. Kitty answered them without knowing what they meant. 8. The land was the one thing in the world worth fighting for. 9. After a moment, everyone started talking again. 10. Jennie was busy all next day preparing for a cocktail-party. 11. He supposed it was the civi­lized way of doing things. 12. She waited a minute or two before speak­ing. 13. Julie expressed horror at the very thought of going out into the cold. 14. I could not answer for coughing. 15. Housekeeping with Lidia worked quite well. 16. "A mule would be useful for crossing the mountain," I observed.

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